School health services vary widely among school districts but generally include documenting immunization status, administering medications, providing nursing care for acute illnesses and injury, conducting screening examinations, participating in the care of disabled students, and enrolling students in health insurance programs. Initiatives that address specific issues such as services for pregnant teens, or risk reduction and health promotion programs have increasingly been included in school-based services. The resource list has special sections that address services for children with disabilities, oral health, medication administration, and teen pregnancy, pre-natal care and sexual risk-taking behaviors.
Teen pregnancy, prenatal care and sexual risk-taking behaviors
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Brown SL, Teufel, JA, Birch D.A. Early adolescents perceptions of health and health literacy. J School Health. 2007; 77(1):7-15+50-52.
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Costante, C.C. School health nursing services role in education: The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. The Journal of School Nursing. 2006; 22(3):142-147.
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Furr-Holden CD, Ialongo NS, Anthony JC, Petras H, Kellam SG. Developmentally inspired drug prevention: middle school outcomes in a school-based randomized prevention trial. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2004 Feb; 73(2):149-58.
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Greenberg MT. Current and future challenges in school-based prevention: the researcher perspective. Prev Sci. 2004 Mar; 5(1):5-13
Guay M, Clouatre AM, Blackburn M, Baron G, De Wals P, Roy C, Desrochers J, Milord F. Effectiveness and cost comparison of two strategies for hepatitis B vaccination of schoolchildren. Can J Public Health. 2003 Jan-Feb;94(1):64-7.
Hall S, Galil K, Watson B, Seward J. The use of school-based vaccination clinics to control varicella outbreaks in two schools. Pediatrics. 2000; 105(1):17.
Hamilton G, O'Connell M, Cross D. Adolescent smoking cessation: development of a school nurse intervention. J Sch Nurs. 2004 Jun; 20(3):169-74.
Hanewinkel R, Asshauer M. Fifteen-month follow-up results of a school-based life-skills approach to smoking prevention. Health Educ Res. 2004 Apr; 19(2):125-37.
Kerr DL, Allensworth DD, Gayle JA. School-based HIV prevention: a multidisciplinary approach. Kent, OH: American School Health Association, 1992.
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Lavin AT, Shapiro GR, Weill KS. Creating agenda for school-based health promotion: a review of 25 selected reports. J Sch Health. 1992; 62(6):212-228.
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Lear JG. Schools and adolescent health: strengthening services and improving outcomes. J Adolesc Health. 2002 Dec;31(6 Suppl):310-20.
Lewis C, Battistich C, Schaps E. School-based primary prevention: what is an effective program? New Dir Child Dev. 1990; 50(1):35-59.
Magalnick H, Mazyck D. Role of the school nurse in providing school health services. Pediatrics.2008;121(5):1052-1056.
Marcontel M, Chauvin VG. Adolescence: Implications for preventive health care in schools. NAACOG's Clin Issues in Perinat Women's Health Nurs. 1991; 2(2):165-178.
McVey GL, Davis R, Tweed S, Shaw BF. Evaluation of a school-based program designed to improve body image satisfaction, global self-esteen, and eating attitudes and behaviors: a replication study. Int J Eat Disorders. 2004 Jul; 36(1):1-11.
Meeker RJ, DeAngelis C, Berman B, et al. A comprehensive school health initiative. IMAGE. 1986; 18(3):86-91.
Middleman AB, Guajardo AD, Sunwoo E, Sansaricq KM. Parent knowledge and attitudes about school-based hepatitis B immunization programs. J Sch Health. 2002 Oct;72(8):348-51.
Miles R. Four pilot projects completed for school-based allergy and asthma screening. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003 May;90(5):461-3.
Nabors LA, Weist MD, Shugarman R, Woeste MJ, Mullet E, Rosner L. Assessment, prevention, and intervention activities in a school-based program for children experiencing homelessness. Behav Modif. 2004 Jul; 28(4):565-78.
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National Commission on the Role of the School and Community in the Improvement of Adolescent Health. Code Blue: uniting for healthier youth. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Boards of Education, 1990.
Nicklas TA, Johnson CC, Webber LS, Berenson GS. School-based programs for health-risk reduction. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997; 817:208-244.
Oros MT, Perry LA, Heller BR. School-based health services: an essential component of neighborhood transformation. Fam Community Health. 2000; 23(2):31-35.
Oyler ME, Chmela KA. The role of stuttering specialists in the school setting. Semin Speech Lang. 2003 Feb;24(1):47-52.
Partington M. Beyond bandages: the developing role of the school nurse. N Z Nurs J. 1988; 82(4):20-23.
Passarelli C. School nursing: Trends for the future. J Sch Health. 1994; 64(4):141-149.
Porter P. School health is a place, not a discipline. J Sch Health. 1987; 57(10):147-149.
Reynolds AJ, Temple JA, Ou SR, Robertson DL, Mersky JP, Topitzes, JW, Niles, M.D. Effects of a school-based, early childhood intervention on adult health and well-being: A 19-year follow up of low-income families. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 2007; 161(8):730-739.
MacKert, M, Whitten P. Successful adoption of a school-based telemedicine system. Journal of School Health. 2007; 77(6):327-330.
Ritenbaugh C, Teufel-Shone NI, Aickin MG, Joe JR, Poirier S, Dillingham DC, Johnson D, Henning S, Cole SM, Cockerham D. A lifestyle intervention improves plasma insulin levels among Native American high school youth. Prev Med. 2003 Mar;36(3):309-19.
Rodriguez S. The importance of school-based handwashing programs. J Sch Nurs. 2002 Oct;Suppl:19-22.
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Schwab N, Gelfman MHB. eds. Legal issues in school health services. North Branch, MN: Sunrise River Press, 2001.
Sherwood-Puzzello, CM, Miller M, Lohrmann D, Gregory P. Implementation of CDC's school health index in 3 midwest middle schools: Motivation for change. Journal of School Health. 2007; 77(6):285-293.
Shields LW, Kuster JM. Finding good resources for treating school-age children who stutter. Semin Speech Lang. 2003 Feb;24(1):7-12.
Shope JT, Dielman TE, Butchart AT, et al. An elementary school-based alcohol misuse prevention program: A follow-up evaluation. J Stud Alcohol. 1992; 53(2):106-121.
Stock MR, Morse EV, Simon PM, Zeanah PD, Pratt JM, Sterne S. Barriers to school-based health care programs. Health Soc Work. 1997; 22(4):274-81.
Strasburger, V.C. and Grossman. How Many More Columbines? What Can Pediatricians Do About School and Media Violence? Pediatric Annals. 2001; 30: 87-94.
The School Health Services Analytic Project Panel. School-based health services: Issues to be addressed by the Health Security Act and other federal legislation. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education and USDHHS, 1994.
Taras H, Nadar P, Swinger H, Fontanesi J. School health innovative programs: Integrating school health and managed care in San Diego. J Sch Health. 1998; 68(1):22-25.
Taras HL, Zuniga de Nuncio ML, Pizzola E. Assessing an intensive school-based assistance program to enroll uninsured children. J Sch Health. 2002 Sep;72(7):273-7.
Telljohann SK, Price JH, Dake JA, Durgin J. Access to school health services: differences between full-time and part-time school nurses. J Sch Nurs. 2004 Jun; 20(3):176-81.
Thurber F, Berry B, Cameron ME. The role of school nursing in the United States. J Pediatr Health Care. 1991; 5(3):135-140.
Walker DK, Butler JA, Bender A. Children's health care and the schools. In: Schesinger, MJ and Eisenberg L, eds. Children in a changing health system. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990.
Wang LY, Davis M, Robin L, Collins J, Coyle K, Baumler E. Economic evaluation of safer choices: A school-based human immunodeficiency virus, other sexually transmitted diseases, and pregnancy prevention program. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000; 154: 1017-1024.
Winnail SD, Bartee RT. How can primary concerns of school district superintendents guide school health efforts? J Sch Health. 2002 Dec;72(10):408-12.
Yates S. The practice of school nursing: Integration with new models of health service delivery. J Sch Nurs. 1994; 10(1):10-19.
Yates S. School health delivery programs throughout the United States. J Sch Nurs. 1994; 10(2):31-36.
Young TL, Ireson C. Effectiveness of school-based telehealth care in urban and rural elementary schools. Pediatrics. 2003 Nov; 112(5): 1088-94.
Abramson JM, Wollan P, Kurland M, Yawn BP. Feasibility of school-based spirometry screening for asthma. J Sch Health. 2003 Apr;73(4):150-3.
Bruzzese MM, Evans D, Wiesemann S, Pinkett-Heller M, Levison MJ, Du Y, Fitzpatrick C, Krigsman G, Ramos-Bonoan C, Turner L, Mellins RB. Using school staff to establish a preventive network of care to improve elementary school students’ control of asthma. J Sch Health. 2006 Aug; 76(6):307-12.
Christiansen SC, Zuraw BL. Serving the underserved: school-based asthma intervention programs. J Asthma. 2002 Sep;39(6):463-72.
Gerald LB ,Redden D, Wittich AR, Hains C, Turner-Henson A, Hemstreet MP, Feinstein R, Erwin S, Bailey WC. Outcomes for a comprehensive school-based asthma management program. J Sch Health. 2006 Aug; 76(6):291-6.
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Halterman JS, Szilagyi PG, Yoos HL, Conn KM, Kaczorowski JM, Holzhauer RJ, Lauver SC, Neely TL, Callahan PM, McConnochie KM. Benefits of a school-based asthma treatment program in the absence of secondhand smoke exposure: results of a randomized clinical trial. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004 May; 158(5):460-7.
Major DA , Clarke SM, Cardenas RA, Taylor-Fishwick JC, Kelly CS, Butterfoss FD. Providing asthma care in elementary schools: understanding barriers to determine best practices. Fam Community Health. 2006 Oct-Dec; 29(4):256-65.
Oruwariye T , Webber MP, Ozuah P. Do school-based health centers provide adequate asthma care? J Sch Health. 2003 May; 73(5):186-90.
Redline S, Larkin EK, Kercsmar C, Berger M, Siminoff LA. Development and validation of school-based asthma and allergy screening instruments for parents and students. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003 May;90(5):516-28.
Taras H, Wright S, Brennan J, Campana J, Lofgren R. Impact of school nurse case management on students with asthma. J Sch Health. 2004; 74(6):213-9.
Tinkelman D, Schwartz A. School-based asthma disease management. J Asthma. 2004 Jun; 41(4):455-62.
Wang LY, Zhong Y, Wheeler L. Asthma medication use in school-aged children. J Asthma. 2006 Sep; 43(7):495-9.
Webber M, Hoxie A, Odlum M, Oruwariye, T Lo Y, Appel D. Impact of asthma intervention in two elementary school-based health centers in thee Bronx, New York City. Ped Pulmonology. 2005 Dec; 40(6):487-93.
Weinstein J. School-based health centers and the primary care physician: an opportunity for collaborative care. Prim Care. 2006 Jun; 33(2):305-15.
Yawn BP, Wollan P, Scanlon P, Kurland M. Are we ready for universal school-based asthma screening?: an outcomes evaluation. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002 Dec;156(12):1256-62.
Yawn BP, Wollan P, Scanlon PD, Kurland M. Outcome results of a school-based screening program for undertreated asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003 May;90(5):508-15.
Children with disabilities and special education-related services
Betz CL. Use of 504 plans for children and youth with disabilities: nursing application. Pediatr Nurs. 2001 Jul-Aug; 27(4):347-52.
Cowell, JM. Health services utilization and special education: development of a school nurse activity tool. J Sch Health. 1988; 58(9):355-359.
The Future of Children. Special education for students with disabilities. Center for the Future of Children. 1996; 6(1).
Gelfman MHB, Schwab N. School health services after Cedar Rapids Independent School District v. Garrett F. J Sch Nurs. 2000; 16(4):54-58.
Koenning GM, Todaro AW, Benjamin JE, Curry MR, Spraul GE, Mayer MC. Health services delivery to students with special health care needs in Texas public schools. J Sch Health. 1995; 65(4):119-23.
Lowe J, Miller W. Health services provided by school nurses for students with chronic health problems. J Sch Nurs. 1998; 14(5):4-16.
McCary, J.M. Improving Access to School-Based nutrition services for children with special health care needs. J of the American Dietetic Association. 2006; 106(9):1333-1336.
Rodman J, Weill K, Driscoll M, et al. A nationwide survey of financing health-related services for special education students. J Sch Health. 1999; 69(4):133-139.
Silverstein R. Emerging disability policy framework: a guidepost for analyzing public policy. Iowa Law Review. 2000; 85: 1691.
Smith DC. Assistive technology: funding options and strategies. MPDLR. 1998; 22(1):115-23.
VanderWaal CJ, McBride, DC, Terry-Elrath YM, Bishop RM. The Role of Public Health Agencies in Providing Access to Adolescent Drug Treatment Services. J of Adolescent Health. 2006; 39(6):916-924.
American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on School Health. Guidelines for the administration of medication in school. 2003. Accessed on the internet at http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;112/3/697. April 5, 2005.
Awbrey LM, Juarez SM. Developing a nursing protocol for over-the-counter medications in high school. J Sch Nurs. 2003 Feb; 19(1):12-5.
Farris KB, McCarthy AM, Kelly MW, Clay D, Gross JN. Issues of medication administration and control in Iowa schools. J Sch Health. 2003 Nov; 73(9):331-7.
Foster LS, Keele R. Implementing an over-the-counter medication administration policy in an elementary school. J Sch Nurs. 2006 Apr; 22(2):108-13.
Kelly MW, McCarthy AM, Mordhorst MJ. School nurses' experience with medication administration. J Sch Nurs. 2003 Oct; 19(5):281-7.
Knipp DK. Teens perceptions about attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and medications. J Sch Nurs. 2006 Apr; 22(2):120-5.
Mears CJ, Charlebois NM, Holl JL. Medication adherence among adolescents in a school-based health center. J Sch Health. 2006 Feb; 76(2):52-6.
McCarthy AM, Kelly MW, Johnson S, Roman J, Zimmerman MB. Changes in medications administered in schools. J Sch Nurs. 2006 Apr; 22(2):102-7.
McCarthy AM, Kelly MW, Reed D. Medication administration practices of school nurses. J Sch Health. 2000; 70(9):371-376.
Middleman AB. Race/ethnicity and gender disparities in the utilization of a school-based hepatitis B immunization initiative. J Adolesc Health. 2004 May; 34(5):414-9.
Minnesota Department of Health. School Medication Administration Study Workgroup Progress Notes. 2001. Accessed on the internet at http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/cfh/shs/pubs/medreport/prognotes.pdf. October 10, 2001.
Minnesota Department of Health. School Medication Administration Study Legislative Language. 2001. Access on the internet at http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/fh/mch/schoolhealth/index.html. October 10, 2001.
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National Association of School Nurses. Position Statement. Medication administration in the school setting. 2003. Accessed on the internet at www.nasn.org/default.aspx?tabid=230 on September 2, 2004.
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Teen pregnancy, prenatal care and sexual risk-taking behaviors
Amin R, Sato T. Impact of school-based comprehensive program for pregnant teens on their contraceptive use, future contraceptive intention, desire for more children. J Community Health Nurs. 2004 Spring; 21(1):39-47.
Barnet B, Arroyo C, Devoe M, Duggan AK. Reduced school dropout rates among adolescent mothers receiving school-based prenatal care. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004 Mar; 158(3):262-8.
Walcott, CM, Meyers, A, Landau S. Adolescent sexual risk behaviors and school-based sexually transmitted infection/HIV prevention. Psychology in the Schools. 2007; 45(1):39-51.
Crosby RA, Lawrence JS. Adolescents' use of school-based health clinics for reproductive health services: Data from the National Study of Adolescent Health. J Sch Health. 2000; 70(1):22-27.
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Fothergill K and Feijoo A. Family planning services at school-based health centers: findings from a national survey. J Adoles Health. 2000 Sep; 27(3):166-9
Kerr DL, Allensworth DD, Gayle JA. School-based HIV prevention: A multidisciplinary approach. Kent, OH: American School Health Association, 1992.
Kirby D, Brener ND, Brown NL, Peterfreund N, Hillard P, Harrist R. The impact of condom distribution in Seattle schools on sexual behavior and condom use. Am J Public Health. 1999; 89(2):182-187.
Kirby D, Short L, Collins J, et al. School-based programs to reduce sexual risk behaviors: a review of effectiveness. Public Health Rep. 1994; 109(3):339-360.
Lindley LL, Reininger BM, Saunders RP. Support for school-based reproductive health services among South Carolina voters. J Sch Health. 2001; 71(2):66-72.
McCarthy Sk, Telljohann SK, Coventry B, Price J. Availability of services for emergency contraceptive pills at high school-based health centers. Perspect Sex ReprodHealth. 2005 Jun; 37(2):70-7.
Peterson JL, Card JJ, Eisen MB, et al. Evaluating teenage pregnancy prevention and other social programs: Ten stages of program assessment. Fam Plann Perspect. 1994; 26(3):116-120,131.
Richardson-Todd B. Sexual health services in school: a project in a multi-agency drop in. J of Family Health Care. 2006;16(1):17-20.
Rietmeijer CA, Bull SS, Ortiz CG, Leroux T, Douglas JM. Patterns of general health care and STD services use among high-risk youth in Denver participating in community-based urine chlamydia screening. Sex Transm Dis. 1998; 25(7)457-463.
Sadler LS, Swartz MK, Ryan-Krause P. Supporting mothers and their children through a high school-based child care center and parent support program. J Pediatr Health Care. 2003 May-Jun; 17(3):109-17.
Santelli, JS, Nystrom RJ, Brindis C, Juszczak L, Klein JD, Bearss N, Kaplan DW, Hudson M, Schlitt J. Reproductive health in school-based health centers: findings from the 1998-99 census of school-based health centers. J Adolesc Health. 2003 Jun; 32(6):443-51.
Schmiedl R. School-based condom availability programs. J Sch Nurs. 2004 Feb; 20(1):16-21.
Smith G. Emergency contraception: a pilot study by school nurses. Nurs Times. 2003 Mar 25-31;99(12):36-8.
Stevens-Simon C, Beach RK. School-based prenatal and postpartum care: strategies for meeting the medical and educational needs of pregnant and parenting students. J Sch Health. 1992; 62(7):304-309.
Taylor B, Berg M, Kapp L, et al. School-based prenatal services: can similar outcomes be attained in a non-school setting? J Sch Health. 1983; 53(8):480-486.
Vincent ML, Clearie AF, Schluchter MD. Reducing adolescent pregnancy through school and community-based education. JAMA. 1987; 257(24):3382-3386.